Article 185 initiatives
Article 185 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) [ex Article 169 of the Treaty establishing the European Community (TEC)] enables the EU to participate in research programmes undertaken jointly by several Member States, including participation in the structures created for the execution of national programmes.
The actions supported may cover subjects not directly linked to the themes of the Framework Programme (FP), as far as they have a sufficient EU added value. They will also be used to enhance the complementarity and synergy between the FP and activities carried out under intergovernmental structures such as EUREKA and COST.
Article 185 TFEU (ex Article 169 TEC) Initiatives in the Seventh Framework Programme:
Article 185 TFEU (ex Article 169 TEC) in the Sixth Framework Programme:
Article 185 (ex-Art. 169) remains equal in the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) in Horizon 2020 with some changes.